The diagnosis would not have been a threat because of the stigma associated with H.I.V. in itself, but because before the murder of Gianni, the family had considered making the company public - even by signing with Morgan Stanley to manage the initial public offering. Announcing that her eponymous visionary had a life-threatening illness would reduce the value of the business.
Orth also reported other details suggesting that Versace could have contracted H.I.V. Among them, she noted that even though Versace was in a long-term relationship with Antonio D'Amico, he and Antonio had a nightclub porter getting sex partners for them in the early 90's. After the designer became seriously ill in 1994 and 1995, according to Orth, "Gianni's health has improved in the last six months before her death - at a time when many people with HIV" After the murder, she writes, the Versace's family "wanted to rush the cremation and get the ashes out of the country as soon as possible."
Before the critics of the true Versace family about including an HIV / AIDS story for Gianni in American Crime Story, executive producer Ryan Murphy said, "I think it's moving and powerful, and I do not do not think there should be a shame. "Greenfield - who has been diligently researching this period - agrees:" I'm sure I'll quote it, but there was an activist during the movement. Act Up, Bob Rafsky, in the documentary How to survive a plague What he would say to be punished - what I mean by "punished" is the negligence of the government and the negligence of the media and just the general neglect of the AIDS problem - being "punished" for being human For someone who has caught the disease where it has been sexually transmitted, how do we blame someone for being human? It's part of what we all do - being fired or thinking it's a deserved death sentence was such a crazy idea for me. So no, I do not think it should be something that is viewed negatively at all. "
After the book of Orth was published, the Versace family issued…
(To be continued)
Gianni Versace: Celebrity, Rumor, and HIV (1)
Gianni Versace: Celebrity, Rumor, and HIV (2)
Gianni Versace: Celebrity, Rumor, and HIV (3)
The Versace family has long denied that Gianni, the original visionary behind the Italian fashion house, was HIV positive when he was murdered in 1997. So, it seems to be a bold choice for Gianni Versace's Assassination: American Crime Story to open his second episode, "Manhunt", with a scene in which Gianni is being treated for the virus - especially since Maureen Orth, a Vanity Fair collaborator, reported for the first time that Gianni was HIV-positive, citing Miami Beach chief inspector Paul Scrimshaw, who had seen the results of Gianni's autopsy. So why did the show tackle such a thorny subject directly?
"We were not talking about dirty gossip or Maureen Orth in all honesty," says Tom Rob Smith, author of American Crime Story, who said he also spoke with sources who claim that Versace had HIV symptom.
"She has no agenda or reason to argue a point of view," he continues. "She was interested in unpacking some of the myths surrounding the murder, like that of Andrew who had AIDS and who was killing because of that." In fact, Andrew, the destroyer of life, had not AIDS, and the person who did it? HIV was this great creator and celebrating life. "
In investigating Versace's health for his book Vulgar Favors: Andrew Cunanan, Gianni Versace, and the largest failed human hunt in US history - the base of the FX-Orth series explained why an HIV diagnosis "at the time ... could have been a threat to the company if it were true."
The diagnosis would not...
(To be continued)
Gianni Versace: Celebrity, Rumor, and HIV (1)
Gianni Versace: Celebrity, Rumor, and HIV (2)
Gianni Versace: Celebrity, Rumor, and HIV (3)
A series of recent comprehensive study and evidence conducted that Abstinence-only sex education(AOE), which is a type of sex education that urges avoiding sex intercourse until marriage, is proven as not an effective form of sexual education for avoiding HIV in American youth. There is not any proof to pursue that abstinence-only-until-marriage methods produce the planned continuing behavioral consequences in which they purpose – success like waiting in dating process
as well as cuts in accidental pregnancies
as well as STIs.
Lack of Practical Behavior Conduct
The goal of this type of education is stopping unwanted pregnancy and the increase of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but young people are still infected by HIV and other STDs.
It has been evaluated in a key study conducted by Mathematica Policy Research that four AOE programs that were reviewed after eight years of their implementation did not decrease teen sexuality. In another study of nine AOE programs conducted by scientist Douglas Kirby in 2008, same results were that the programs had "no overall influence on adolescents' delay in initiation of sex, age at initiation of sex, return to abstinence, number of sexual partners, or condom or contraceptive use". In addition, two things that are considered to be the goals of any successful sexual education program, the increased knowledge of HIV and use of protection, are found to be deficient in results.
The failure of AOE programs at obtaining these results should be considered reason enough to be ineffective in stopping HIV and STDs. These programs provide very confined education about condoms and contraceptives.
Misconceptions and Outright Falsehood Information
The misleading information in abstinence sex education is very common. The teachers try to explain and make their conclusion believable by uncertain spirituality and also technological quotations, unproven statements and even prejudiced findings or overall falsehoods concerning the performance of contraceptives, gender attributes, not to mention one existence starts.
In a further study conducted by Mathematica Policy Research have found that regardless of the teachings to remain abstinent, about half of all teens are sexually active by the time they leave high school, which further indicates the need for those youth to be educated on methods of preventing the transmission of STDs like HIV. Condom use is a key method of preventing the spread of HIV. Unfortunately, youth in AOE programs are not taught this potentially life-saving information. Rather, these AEO programs provide out-of-date information that misjudge the ability of condoms to prevent HIV, and they are taught to believe that condoms allow the spread of HIV.
AOE could inversely raise the possibility of STI
Surprisingly, additional current study demonstrates abstinence-only methods could prevent contraceptive apply among sexually dynamic teenagers, raising their danger of accidental maternity as well as STIs.
The effects of this misinformation on youth have also been studied, and the results are disheartening.
A study conducted by Dr. Kirby found that the youth in these AOE programs have also been affected by the misinformation they provide and youth in AOE programs were much less likely than youth not in AOE programs to see condoms as effective at preventing STDs. The endeavor at reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS is notably affected by deficiency of understanding about how to effectively stop HIV. It is clearly understood to abstain youth from having sex for as long as possible, regardless, it should still be assured that they are properly informed and prepared about when they should begin having sex. These programs should no longer be allowed to represent falsified and deficient education as long as the rate of HIV infection in teens and young adults is increasing.
How and why unprotected sex could lead to HIV transmission? Alcohol and power difference are most likely among the reasons. Also, knowing the STD status difference between you and your honey sweetie could also help building a better love nest.
Several occasions that sex partners go unprotected sex
Consuming alcohol prior to sex is a major factor of unprotected sex in partners. A research has predicted that probability of having sex increases as participants consume the increasing amount of alcohol. Secondly, probability of having unprotected sex also increases as the more you drink.
2. Power difference
Sometimes people are afraid of their partner's reaction and cannot ask the other to wear a condom during sex which increases the probability of getting or transmitting HIV. This is an example of how power difference is harmful. It is even harder to ask a partner to wear a condom in abusive and violent relationships.
How is HIV transmitted through unprotected sex?
HIV occurs through transfer of blood, pre-ejaculation, semen and vaginal fluids. The reason why sexual activity is a risk for transmission of HIV is that it allows for the exchange of body fluids like blood, semen and vaginal secretions between partners.
1. Vaginal Intercourse
The most common way of transmission of HIV in the world is unprotected vaginal intercourse. It has been revealed in a study that male-to-female HIV transmission during vaginal intercourse is notably more likely than female-to-male HIV transmission. That is to say, HIV-positive men transmit the virus to HIV-negative women through vaginal intercourse more than the HIV-positive women transmit the virus to HIV-negative men because of the larger surface area of mucosal tissues of women and lining of both the vagina and cervix are rich in immune system cells which can damage easily. HIV is transmitted in men occurs through the lining of urethra inside the tip of the penis or through a wound or cut on penis foreskin.
2. Anal Intercourse
There is a high risk of occurring HIV through anal intercourse. A receptive partner is at much higher risk for HIV during unprotected anal intercourse but each of two partners can get HIV infected. The reason for this is HIV virus mixed with semen is transmitted through direct contact with anal mucosal tissues. It has been demonstrated in a study that pre-ejaculate (pre-cum) can contain high amounts of HIV and can result in transmission during anal intercourse.
It is possible for an insertive partner to get HIV infected through a wound or cut on the penis or through the lining of the urethra inside the tip of the penis.
How and why unprotected sex have high rates of HIV transmission?
Unprotected sex has high rates of HIV transmission if you have sexual partners with a different HIV status than you. The probability of transmitting HIV increases with a high viral load, and the probability of getting HIV also increases if your partner has a sexually transmitted disease (STD). If you have several sex partners then the chance of having intercourse with a partner who has a different HIV status than you increases so the risk of getting HIV increases.
1. Having a different HIV status than your partner
It is necessary that the sex partners know the HIV status of each other. If your HIV status is negative and you are involved in sex with a partner who is HIV-positive then your chances of getting HIV increase, and this probability increases each time you have sex with this partner.
2. Having sex with several sex partners
If you and your sex partners have overlapping sex partners, your risk of getting HIV increases. The reason for this is that the more sexual partners you have in your lifetime, the more probably you are to have sex with HIV infected person. IF you are sexually active, you should have sex with fewer partners in future.
How is HIV prevented through sex?
1. Use of condom.
The probability of occurring HIV will significantly be lower if a condom is accurately used during sex.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), and treatment as prevention are some other methods of protection during intercourse.
2. Use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).
To lower the probability of getting HIV, an HIV-negative person can take pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) pill to reduce the risk of HIV by more than 90 percent.
3. Use post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)
PEP consists of taking prescription antiretroviral medications after a recent vulnerability to HIV. It is a short course used in an emergency situation, generally for a month, after 72 hours of viable exposure.
4. Treatment as prevention
STD/STI check consists of taking medication to decrease the quantity of virus in blood so that the probability of that individual transmitting HIV to a sexual partner may decrease.
As we know, HIV can be passed on from an infected person to an uninfected person through body fluids such as semen, blood, and vaginal fluids. However, Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (perinatal or vertical transmission) is the transmission that occurs from an HIV-positive mother to her child-which can occur during pregnancy, labor (delivery), and breastfeeding. Perinatal transmission is the most common way children become infected with the virus.
Without the help of any form of treatment for either the expectant mother or the child, an ， HIV-positive woman has a 15% to 45% chance of transmitting the virus to her baby. That’s between a third and a half, which is fairly high. But with treatment, the chance can be as low as 2%!
How is HIV transmitted to a baby?
Vertical transmission occurs due to many factors. The most important of which is the amount of HIV in the blood – also known as viral load. Vertical transmission can occur if the baby comes in contact with mother’s blood or other body fluids.
During Pregnancy (in utero transmission): some newborn babies tested positive when they are only a few days old. The only explanation is that they became infected during pregnancy. This is most likely to occur if the placenta was damaged during pregnancy and the mother’s blood comes into the blood circulation of the foetus.
During childbirth: During vaginal births, babies have a high chance of coming in contact with the mothers' blood and other genital fluids. The virus is present in these body fluids and can be transmitted to the babies during childbirth. Especially for mothers with a high viral load.
Breastfeeding: HIV is present in breast milk and HIV can effectively be passed on from mother-to-child during breastfeeding. The virus in the milk most likely gets passed the infant’s stomach wall and into the bloodstream. It is always advisable for women with HIV NOT to breastfeed their babies. Instead, the use of baby formula is advisable to protect them from the virus.
How to Prevent Passing HIV to the Baby
With the right care and treatment, the chances of an HIV-positive mother delivering a healthy child free from the virus is about 98 percent-which is very high! But as it is the case with most STDs, early treatment is key. Hence, it is strongly recommended that women who are planning on becoming pregnant or who are already pregnant should be tested for HIV.
Protecting your baby during pregnancy
If you tested positive for HIV before you became pregnant, it is very likely you have a treatment regime in place already, provided your health care provider is aware, you should continue with your treatment. If not, you should talk to your healthcare professional about starting treatment at once.
If you found out during your pregnancy that you’re HIV positive, after talking with your healthcare professional, it is expected that you begin treatment and continue with it for the rest of your life.
The drugs used for HIV treatment are called antiretroviral drugs (ART). The treatment is usually made up of three or more ARTs taken together. Sometimes, they are combined into a single pill. Your doctor will be able to recommend which is best for you.
Protecting your baby during delivery
If you discover your HIV status and if positive, begin treatment early enough, the chances of transmitting the virus to your baby are extremely small at only 2%. For women living with the virus who are receiving HIV treatment, a vaginal birth remains an option if the viral load is undetectable.
However, in the case of a high viral load, your healthcare professional is likely to recommend a caesarean delivery. This is because vaginal birth is likely to bring the baby in contact with the mother’s blood and vaginal fluids.
Protecting your baby after pregnancy (breastfeeding)
HIV is present in breastmilk and can be passed on from an HIV-positive mother to her child during breastfeeding. According to a study, about 15% of babies born to HIV-positive mothers will be infected if fed breastmilk for 24 months or longer.
Health care providers strongly recommend HIV-positive women to use baby formula and not to breastfeed, especially if the cost of sterilizing equipment and infant formula is not a problem for you.
It is also advisable to give your baby a special type of HIV treatment for up to 6 weeks after delivery, usually in syrup form. Your healthcare professional is in a better place to recommend the appropriate type and dosage for your baby.
Where To Get Help
If you are pregnant, it is advised you attend your antenatal appointments regularly. You will be offered the traditional model for HIV testing known as the ‘opt-in’ method after voluntary counselling. It is becoming increasingly common for Prevent the Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services to offer Provider Initiated Testing and Counselling (PITC), where women have to decline to take the test after been given counselling about it.
An HIV-positive mother can pass the virus to her baby during pregnancy, at childbirth, and by breastfeeding. So, the Prevent the mother-to-child transmission of HIV approach requires the transmission of the virus to be blocked at each of these stages.
Pregnant women who are positive receive treatment for HIV to reduce the risk of transmission of the virus to their babies and to protect their own health. With the right care and treatment, HIV-positive women can become pregnant and deliver healthy babies completely free of the virus.